Automated Antenna Switch

Fabrication and installation of a network controlled antenna switch. Allows for 2 inputs with up to 6 outputs.

After putting up multiple antennas at my QTH, it was frustrating having to manually switch between antennas. There are plans to add SO2R (Single Operator, 2 Radio) operation and have the option to use the station remotely in the future. I needed some type of automated antenna switch.

Goal is to have an automated antenna switch that can be controlled over the network and/or the internet. In a SO2R or 2O2R (2 operators, 2 radios) environment using two computers, I’d would like each computer to know what antenna the other is using.

After doing some research, there were a couple options.

Commercial Options

4O3A Antenna Genius – Ranko makes some quality products for the serious contester. The ‘Antenna Genius’ has everything I want in an antenna switch. However, it’s quite expensive at around $875USD and that’s just the switch itself. This is way out of my budget.

Team-XCR 4 Way Remote Switch – When I was initially researching switches, I’ve heard about this project but it was still in development. As of writing this article, it appears they are in production.

I wasn’t interested in this project at the time because it was being developed as a 1X4. One antenna input, 4 outputs. I’m looking for a 2X6 configuration and SO2R support

However, it’s very promising. It’s controlled by Wifi (ESP32 Module) with a web interface and uses the coax to power the relays using a Bias-T circuit. For around $250USD (switch + bias T) that’s not bad at all. There is also development being made for a 2X6 which is promising. I’ll be watching this project for sure.

Snaptekk, Remoterigs, DXEngineering and others. – There are many options of automated/remote switching out there but either it didn’t support automated switching what I wanted or the price was just too much

Do It Yourself

It’s possible to do an automated antenna switch yourself but that depends on you value your time. Since I didn’t have much knowledge in creating a RF friendly PCB and don’t know how to create the code for an Arduino or Raspberry Pi project, I looked for people that already done to the work.

I found it’s possible to create a 2X6 automated switch that can be networked controlled if you combine two projects.

KK1L 2X6 Kit

First was the KK1L 2X6 PCB Kit. This has been on my mind for years. I’m aware of many people who have purchased it and use it in their shack without much issue. Ron only sells the PC boards but he does provide a really nice mouser list that you can import into your shopping cart. Makes it very easy.

However, I wasn’t really a fan of his controller and held off purchasing the 2X6 because of it. Nothing against the design. It’s not what I wanted. During my research I was unaware there can be multiple ways to control the relay board.


While researching another project (MORRTY) and from a suggestion from a fellow ham on IRC, I came across the FreqEZ II by Larry, K8UT (Will call it FEZ2 from now on) I didn’t think much at first until I clicked on the link. It had everything I wanted in a controller. It utilizes a Raspberry Pi (RPi) and to top it off, he developed hardware that uses the RPi’s GPIO pins. For $50USD, the price was worth it. I had a few Raspberry Pis laying around from other projects (ADSB, RTLSDR).

Larry also developed software for Windows that could take data from BCD, UDP broadcasts from certain logging software (N1MM, DXlabs) to automatically switch antennas and you can also control it manually through the software.

Will They Work Together?

Yes they will! Even Ron (KK1L) was interested in the FEZ2 and was implementing it into his station. Larry (K8UT) also assured me that it could work but at the time wasn’t sure about preventing the hardware and/or software from having both radios choose the same antenna.

Ron assured me that even if something happened with the software/controller, it won’t be able to connect both radios (inputs) to the same antenna (output) as designed by the hardware.

Larry (K8UT, FEZ2 dev) was currently developing features such as constraints to also prevent multiple radios from choosing the same antenna. For anyone planning to follow along, The FreqEZII wasn’t developed FOR the KK1L 2X6. It was developed for all sorts of hardware and applications.

The Goals

I have two goals in mind for this project. One is for a 2A (2 Station) field day option and the other is for home.

Field Day layout block diagram
Field Day Option With 2X IC-705, 2 PCs, Router/Switch, KK1L 2X6 w/ FreqEZ, BPFs, Triplexor and Antennas (Goal 1)

I help out with a small (private) field day operation. It started as a simple 2 station effort with wires in the trees. Of course we complicate things over the years by adding a tower with a beam and multiple antennas. With the station and antennas optimized to our liking, only issue we had was switching antennas. My goal for 2022 was to automate the process

SO2R block diagram layout
Option 2: This would be my “dream” setup

The above “option 2” diagram shows my dream setup. Dream is the 6600 with PGXL. However, it might end up being my current flex 6400, used HF solid state rig and possibly 2 amplifiers or something from SPE.

For now this project will be focused on Option 1 which is for Field Day use since it’s needed and promised. We’re going to focus on building the 2X6 relay board and getting it to work with the FEZ2

KK1L 2X6 Build

Ron had boards in stock and thankfully mouser had all the parts in stock as well. Ron provides a list on his website that you can import to your mouser shopping cart. Be careful because he does list optional parts and he recommends an enclosure that may or may not work with this exact project.

Ron and Mouser shipped very fast and received both items within a week. Ron has included assembly instructions but I prefer the ones from his website.

If you follow the instructions, the build is quite straight forward. Be sure to follow it carefully as components have to clear other components. Only thing I did different was fabricated spacers for the SO-239 mounts instead of using nuts that he specified.

spacers for relay board
1/8″ spacers made for the KK1L
finished relay board
Completed 2X6

FreqEZII Build

The build itself was easy. I purchased the FEZ2 hat that installs on any raspberry pi that has a 40pin connector. Well worth the money if you ask me. Just plug the hat onto the Raspberry Pi. Getting it to work with the pi is where all focus will be.

Larry suggests using a Pi4 or a Pi3 and provided detailed instructions. However at the time of starting this project, Raspberry Pi’s are quite difficult to get. I personally have a few Raspberry PI 1 B+ units laying around. They have the 40pin connector and figured to give it a try. The Pi Zeros with 40pin headers could work as well.

His instructions are for those who don’t know their way around a Raspberry Pi, Linux or using a CLI (Command Line Interface). Due to the limited resources and limited CPU of the Pi 1, I didn’t want to install a full GUI (Graphical User Interface like with Windows). This is where I deviated from Larry’s instructions. I strongly suggest if you are following along to use Larry’s instructions. I know enough about linux to get myself into trouble.

As of writing this article, Larry has been very active in updating the software and the older Pis may or may not work after a recent major update.

I’ll keep this article updated as I go along.

Putting It All Together

With the 2X6 built and the FEZ2 in working order, we can now put both of these projects together. This will mostly involve wiring. This might change depending on exactly what you want to do with your project.

The KK1L uses 12Vdc to power the relays. However, the RPi require 5Vdc. Since most shacks use 12-14Vdc, you’ll need to convert 12v to 5. You can do it yourself but I went to Amazon and found a converter made for the RPi.

Even though I was initially confused at first, wiring the relay board to the FEZ is very simple. The FEZ has 16 outputs split into two bays. You’ll only need 12. 6 for “Radio A” and 6 for “Radio B”. What I did was use the first 6 outputs from the FEZ to feed all the “A” ports on the 2X6 and used the 2nd bay to feed all the “B” ports on the 2×6. Below is a diagram showing what I did

Relayboard and controller block diagram
Diagram showing how I wired the FreqEZ to the 2X6 relay board.

The KK1L 2X6 relays use 12v. The 12V+ from the PSU is going to both “C” (control) banks as they can be operated independently.


You’ll see that I also wired the 12v-to-5v converted directly to the GPIO pins of the RPi. I did this because I purchase the wrong converter and had a different USB type end. If you decide to solder 5v directly to the GPIO pins of the Pi, please confirm that you are soldering to the correct pins and take care to prevent shorts. Not pictured in my diagram is inline fuses. I have one prior to the case and I added one on the 5v side to protect the pi.

As for the wire itself, I used CAT6 cable. The relays are not requiring a massive amount amperage. I used two “short” sections. One for antenna “A” and another for “B”.

FreqEZ2, Raspberry Pi and KK1L 2X6 Test Setup

Testing went okay. Loaded the FreqEZ2 windows software and was activating and de-activating relays to confirm operation. This allows me to stuff everything inside of a case and continuing setting up the software which I feel is the 2nd “battle” of this project.

Enclosure Fabrication

automated antenna switch enclosure

This is where you won’t be able to follow along. I did not purchase the enclosure that KK1L suggested as I wanted room for a raspberry pi and a divider hoping to keep RFI away from the Pi and hat. The enclosure in KK1L’s mouser BOM may or may not work with both the Rpi and Relay board in the same enclosure. I can’t confirm this. Hammond MFG does make a larger enclosure that you can purchase on mouser. I can’t confirm if it will work 100% as I went with a custom fabricated enclosure. For those who want to fabricate their own enclosure, KK1L provides drawings with the hole layouts on his site. The pi and relay board are in separate enclosures.

Inside of enclosure without relay board
Enclosure without relay board showing RasPI and converter
Enclosure with separator installed
Enclosure with RasPi covered up to help with any possible RFI reduction.

Trial By Fire

With everything together, it would be best to test things out independently within its own environment before implementing it into a station. Make sure everything is working properly and try everything possible to make it not work.

I’ve confirmed that the software and hardware worked. At first, There were some issues when it came to networked operations using multiple copies of the windows software. Larry and Ron were quick to help. Larry even updated his software because of some of the issues I’ve had.

With things appearing to work properly, I should have put RF through it and tested everything again but of course that wasn’t done. I decided to use ARRL Field Day 2022 to be the first real test.

If this works throughout the entire weekend then I considered it a major success considering the quick implementation. Worst case is we go back to manual switching. However, I don’t want that to happen.

There was one issue I had setting up. However, it wasn’t related to the switch itself . It was related to trying to use the switch on an established network and accidentally setting stricter firewall settings on the PCs controlling the switch.

First Run

automated antenna switch complete
Antenna Switch In Action

Started FD with the network and firewall settings issue but it didn’t really get in the way. After the first hour we finally figured out what was causing the issue. Ended up turning off the PC’s firewall. Next year we’ll make sure the PCs join the wifi network as a “Private Network”.

I configured the switch to work based off N1MM+ UDP broadcasts to automatically switch antennas. We’re using Icom 705’s that are also connected to N1MM for control and to pass data back and fourth. This allows the operators to focus on operating and don’t have to learn the FEZ control software.

After that minor issue cleared up, the FEZ and KK1L switch worked flawlessly throughout the entire weekend. Even during power cycles. The operators that were using the stations enjoyed not having to manually swap coax or remember which coax is which.

Overall Thoughts

Overall it was a success and it will be used for field days and other events to come. Also plan on building one for my shack. Larry and Ron were a pleasure to deal with and I think it’s an excellent combination. If you’re looking for a network/remote controllable 2X6 antenna switch and you are willing to put in the work, the FreqEZ and KK1L 2X6 is a perfect, cost savings project that you would be proud to use.

As I was typing this article, Larry (K8UT, FreqEZII developer) has came out with some exciting news. He moved the project to it’s own website and even developed another piece of hardware that makes use of the Pi ZERO. He is continually working on this project.

I’m also aware that Ron is in the process of developing PCBs that will implement FEZ.

Thank you for reading. 73 DE NT1K

Back On The Air… Sort of (HF9V Rebuild)

Since the Eastern States Exposition (AKA “The BigE”) which is New England’s largest fair located right near my QTH is at peak attendance, traffic is everywhere and makes leaving my house difficult.

Worst traffic to the BigE I’ve ever seen in my 15 years living here

Since I’m not really going anywhere, it’s time to work on some smaller projects at my QTH. Since there wasn’t a single functional HF antenna. It’s time to get at least one of them back on the air.

Attention focused on the Butternut HF9V vertical since it’s the easier of the two to repair. This antenna was purchased used and installed 9 years ago. Nothing has been done to it since. It’s no longer resonate on any of the bands and the tuner can’t “match” anything as the SWR was always changing.

Investigating what’s wrong

The antenna has seen better days. Lots of overgrowth to the point where the radial plate at the base is barely visible. The antenna is fed by a 130ft run of LMR-400 buried underground with 30 radials of various lengths.

There is a remote relay system in between because there are two additional antennas in the area but have been since removed because the trees used for support have been removed earlier in the year.

I’ve decided to bypass the relay system for now and tested the LMR run from the house. Placed a 50ohm dummy load at the far end and used the NanoVNA on the other. Thankfully all is well

Next was inspecting where the 75ohm patch cable connects to the antenna. The original Butternut antennas had the end of the patch cable stripped with terminal rings covered by shrink wrap. It was corroded and breaking apart.

The antenna was removed from the ground and noticed that the 28″ section of aluminum tubing broke. This was most likely caused because a steel pipe that was used as a sleeve. Due to the high water table in the area and using dissimilar metals, corrosion happened just below ground level.

Broken Tube

Tubing Repair

It was decided to start with the most obvious. First would be to repair the broken section of aluminum and 2nd would be to rebuilt the 75ohm patch able and connection to the antenna itself.

Any ham that’s been involved in HF for awhile will eventually have a supply of random tubing. I was hoping there was an exact match in diameter but couldn’t find any. However, there was some tubing that was slightly larger and allowed the corroded pieced to fit snugly within. Ended up trimming off the bad stuff and riveted it the larger diameter tubing.

Repaired tune (right side) using larger tube

Patch Cable Repair

Earlier in the week I attempted to repair the 75ohm section by trimming the coax and replicated exactly the same setup. It might have been fine but the antenna was still not working.

When referencing the new manual, it appears they’ve changed how the patch cable is connected to the antenna. The 75ohm section now has two PL-259 connectors on each end and there is a SO-239 to two wire adapter hooked up to the antenna. I wanted to replicate the new system.

In one of the newer manuals, it’s shows coax adapter (R1)

Modified the patch cable so it now has two PL-259 connectors and created an adapter using a thick walled pill bottle, SO-239 chassis mount connector, 2 12ga wires with ring terminals crimped and partially soldered. Passed the continuity tests, filled the void with 2 part epoxy and covered with splicing tape.

Also decided to wrap the 75ohm section around a 4″ PVC Pipe. There is no particular reason why it was done other than keeping things neat. Much better than it coiled up wrapped with electrical tape.

Repaired cable and tubing.

Still Not Working

With the tube repaired and the 75ohm patch cable better than ever, I was hoping the antenna would be operational again. Nope! The antenna wasn’t even close to being resonate in any band. The NanoVNA was showing dips but nowhere close to in-band.

Started looking for cracked/broken insulators and any damage or corrosion to the coils and their mounting points. Couldn’t find anything wrong.

Only thing left are the capacitors. The HF9V uses three door knob capacitors. These are high voltage capacitors that allow for higher power to be used. Uses two 67pf and one 200pf caps. They have threads on each side of the cap for mounting.

Soon as I attempted to remove the upper most cap, it easily broke apart without any effort. I was actually excited hoping that this was causing all the issues.

Broken 67pf Doorknob Capacitor – Missing/Broken Thread

Thankfully someone gave me spare parts that included two brand new capacitors. I swapped them out and re-tested the antenna

Back In Business… Sort Of

The NanoVNA SWR plots are showing DEEP dips close to band frequencies which made me very happy. However, the upper frequencies in the 10, 15 and even 20m weren’t looking so good.

I’ve removed the antenna and attempted adjust the overall length of the antenna but couldn’t see any noticeable changes. The lowest SWR was just outside of the band.

The day was coming to an end and decided to call it quits. However, I did tune 40m which was excellent (SWR Wise) and tuned 80 to the FT8 frequencies since it has a narrow bandwidth. At least I’ll have something to use.

80M Plot Off The NanoVNA – 1.08:1 SWR @ 3.568Mhz
40M Plot Off The NanoVNA – 1.23:1 SWR @ 7.12Mhz – Covers The Entire Band

Getting Back On The Air

If I really cared about contesting, I would have done this repair the week before because the CQWW RTTY contesting was going on and the bands were packed with signals. Could have spent time getting the rest of my station ready as I don’t have the proper software installed due to a full format.

Looking at all the RTTY signals on 20m using the HF9V

In between other projects throughout the rest of the weekend, I hopped on the air and mostly did FT8 contacts. I was having fun. Managed to make about 100 or so contacts. Lots of DX and possibly some new band contacts.

Just some of the QSOs I’ve made (taken from my LoTW logs)

What’s Next?

The vertical still needs work. Need to clean around the area and prevent future vegetation infestation. Also going to replace the 200pf cap and tune the rest of the antenna. Finally add more radials cut for various bands/lengths

Then focus will be towards the beam. I’m being hopeful it’s just something wrong with the pigtail section. Since I don’t like climbing my roof I might have to solicit the help of local hams.

If there is something wrong after the repair, I have a 2nd CL-33 that I’ll rebuild/repair and just swap it out entirely. If I can’t get that to work then I’ll save up for a new beam.

Thanks for reading! 73
Jeff (NT1K)

Yet another year. Updates with NT1K

Wow! It’s been well over another year and I didn’t post any updates or projects. That’s because I haven’t done much when it comes to amateur radio. After looking back, all I’ve done was participate in the New England QSO Party (NEQP), Field Day (FD) and did a handful of contacts.

2021 was not a good year for me personally. My goal for 2022 is to do more things related to amateur radio.

Antennas Are Dead

A big reason why I haven’t made many contacts from home in 2021 is that my antennas are not working.

NanoVNA plot showing the return loss and SWR of my beam as of writing this article

With my beam, I have a feeling water got into the connection where the coax from my beam (pigtail) meets the coax going to my station. Or at least I hope. You’ll see in the above graph there are dips near the band.

The tuner on my flex can’t seem to find a match for the antenna. If it does, soon as I increase the power, the SWR goes bonkers.

My other two antennas (HF9V, Inverted L for 80M) are also not working. I have a feeling water got into the line and ruined the cable.

If anyone ever decides to run their coax underground, go larger with the piping and tubing. I’m considering digging it up and replacing it with 1-1/2″ or larger tubing so I can have 3 runs of coax, control cable and even a couple CAT6 ethernet runs. Also considering just pulling the coax and run direct burial coax.

Other things going on

I’ve had a lot of major projects at home and at work. So my antenna went mostly to that. However, I always have amateur radio in mind. Only thing I really did in 2021 was the New England QSO party and Field Day. In 2022 I did basically the same thing but I also did some contests from K1TTT (contest station). I have worked on a couple projects in 2022 related to amateur radio. I’ve built a (tr)uSDX transceiver kit and I also built a networked 2X6 antenna switch. I will be releasing separate blog posts about each project.

Future Amateur Radio Goals

Since one of my major house projects is done, I can sort of focus back on my hobbies. There are many things I need to do and I even may get over my stubbornness and ask people for help.

Here is a breakdown of things I need to

  • Repair or replace the CL-33 Yagi – Hardest thing to do since I don’t like going on my roof
  • Run new coax to edge of property – Still hard but I won’t have to worry about falling off a roof. Plan is to run 2 lengths of cox, 2 lengths of CAT6 cable and run for 12V DC. That way I can have multiple antennas up
  • Better Station Grounding – That’s going to be interesting since my shack is on the 2nd floor. Going to cover my desk with some aluminum and better cable management.
  • SOTA! – Now that I have a portable radio, I want to get back into doing summits on the air. Thankfully there a group of people that like to do SOTA and hopefully get them to tag along.
  • More contesting -When my station is hopefully better (before OCT), I hope to participate in CQWW and ARRL DX.

Stay tuned!

Another year, another contact! Updates at NT1K.

Yes, I am still here. Just not as active compared to 2011. Maybe it’s the solar cycle, maybe it’s complacency, maybe it’s that I have other things going on or maybe it’s a combination of the three. I wish I could blame it on the COVID-19 situation but my involvement declined well before it happened.

Many things happened since my last post so I figured I would give anyone who actually follows this blog a bit of an update. There will be separate blog posts of things that I feel I need to go into details over. Here are the updates.

New Radio!

That’s right, I sold off my K3 and purchased a new radio… 2 years ago! Even though I loved my K3, it had to go. There was some things I didn’t like about the K3 and elecraft in general. I purchased my K3 at a weird time.

Even though I was purchasing a brand new radio, I felt like I purchased something that was already outdated. Soon after my purchase they released a synth upgrade and then the K3S. Elecraft wouldn’t cut me a deal on the synth so I wasn’t really happy.

Don’t get me wrong. The elecraft K3 performs really well and is miles better than my YAESU FT-950. Biggest issue with me that the audio was just horrible. As a primary phone (voice) operator. I struggled when it came to contests.

The ergonomics is sub-par when you compare it to the latest and greatest from the “Big Three”. However, that doesn’t really matter during a contest when it’s all about RX.

Hello Flex 6400!

Since I always use the pan-adapter with the K3, I figure I would be more at home with a Software Defined Radio (SDR). At this point, Flex Radio systems is a leader in amateur radio SDR transceivers. It’s a no-brainer!

I’m torn between the 6400 and the 6600. The 6600 offers so much more but my wallet couldn’t support the purchase. The K3 basically tanked in value with the K3S and the K4 around the corner. With my lack of involvment in the hobby, I thought the 6400 was the right choice.

New 2020 station at NT1K
My new 2020/2021 setup for now

I ended up going with the plain 6400. Not the 6400M. I felt that if I wanted knobs and buttons, I could get the Maestro. It’s basically a remote head unit that you would get on some VHF/UHF mobile radios

I will be going into a 2 year detailed review in another blog post. Stay tuned!

New Tower!

That’s right folks, I got a new tower! Well… it’s not really a NEW tower and it’s not really a stationary tower. It’s technically portable in a military sense. I got my hands on AB-577. A Vietnam area “push up” tower that supports microwave horns or camouflage netting.

It’s sought after by hams as a quick way to deploy an antenna tower that can support various configurations of antennas. I could never find wind and load ratings but I’ve seen some massive antennas perched on these towers.

I’ve fell in love with this tower in the mid 1990’s when I was a teen. Back then they were somewhat plentiful. I always wanted one. However, over time they became very scarce and couldn’t really use it on my property. Whenever one became available, I passed to someone else and always regretted it.

I knew a few people that had them and I always bugged them about letting go of theirs. Either I wore one of them down or they realize they are no longer going to use it and offered it to me. Even though it was a bit out of my price range, I didn’t want to let it go.

Somewhat new AB-577
The “New” AB-577

Field Day 2020 is on!

With the newly acquired AB-577, I was desperate to use it. I cleaned it as much as possible and applied a bit of grease where needed. It was ready to go. However, my local club already uses multiple AB-577s and the COVID pandemic was in full tilt so I didn’t think I was going to make use of my new tower.

A small group of hams that I regularly hang out with still wanted to have a non-public field day and I immediately offered up my AB-577 with a tri-band beam. They were understandably hesitant because in the prior year they used wires and the AB-577 can be a pain. However, there were issues with the wire antennas and I’m insistent. It was a go!

The AB-577 checked out. There was an issue with 2 of the 8 tubes. But if you were to install them first, it wasn’t an issue. My big issue was the beam. We were using a Mosely CL-33 . I got my hands on 2 of them for field day. I figured I’ll get at least one functioning beam out of it. Like with anything else, I waited to the last second to get it ready.

broken trap
I am starting to really hate traps!

Field Day 2020 Setup

With everything packed into my small utility trailer, it was go time. On Thursday (the day before FD setup) I dropped off everything at the site so I didn’t have to scramble around in the morning. Since it was going to be a hot and rainy weekend, I just wanted it out of my way.

The next day we started working. The AB-577 went up okay. The biggest pain in the butt was the guy anchors. Since I didn’t have the pound in stakes that normally come with a AB-577, we used screw-in anchors. They are a pain to install. Tower was plumb and ready for an antenna.

The goal was to install the tower with a tri-band (10/15/20) beam and two inverted V dipoles for 40m and 80m. With a triplexor and single band pass filters, we could technically have 5 stations on at the same time. However we planned for 2A QRP using a couple elecraft KX3 radios.

The main antenna didn’t do so well. It wasn’t looking good on the analyzer and I am not sure why. I swore I double checked everything. Other than installing the driven element on top of the boom, I am not sure what else would cause issues. I also brought two 80m antennas and caught that after installation.

Field Day 2020 antenna setup
The AB-577 finally vertical. Has the CL-33 at the top and two wire antennas below. Pool noodles adds +5db

FD 2020 On The Air!

We didn’t feel like lowering the triband beam and made use of the ATUs inside the KX3 rigs. The goal was to beat last years score and with the tri-bander acting funny, I didn’t think it was going to be possible. We had one station doing CW and the other station doing FT8 and voice. However, I’m not sure if there was ANY SSB contacts.

I wanted to do the night shift, I went home shortly after FD hoping that I would catch a nap and return at 10pm to make contacts on 40/80 throughout the night. However, home life took over and didn’t make it. I felt bad for the one op that operated throughout most of the night.

NE1C Field Day On The Air
Kx1x doing FT-8 and N1FJ doing CW at Field Day

The on and off rain that we had throughout the weekend was both a blessing and a pain. It broke the 90f+ heat but getting soaked wasn’t fun either.

We ended up making 433 contacts and got 5,190 points as NE1C in WMA for the Hampden County Amateur Radio Association (HCRA) which isn’t that bad. We beat last years score and out of al the submissions from the locals, we had the most contacts and points. I consider that a success even though we could have done better with a functioning antenna on 20, 15 and 10.

Remote Exams

Due to COVID-19 situation, there are many restrictions put into place and I have been unable to host any examinations for new amateur radio licenses and upgrades. It’s a bit of a bummer because I do enjoy hosting examination. I knew the FCC allows remote exams and was hoping that Laurel VEC would allow it but it appears they had no interest. I figured I would help out in any way I could. Thankfully there were a few VECs that stepped up.

I found the Greater LA Amateur Radio Group (GLAARG). They were hosting remote exams and they seem to be doing very well. I was able to get accredited with GLAARG and help out as much as possible at first. The two/three people running the show (Norm, Naomi) were the nicest people and was proud to do exams with them. I was hoping that I could host my own remote exams so that locals could get license.

I ended up stepping back (but not away!) from it as my situation at home and work took over. As much as I love amateur radio and helping others get their license, home and work come first.

No More Free Licenses

When I found out that the FCC was implementing fees for amateur radio applications, it made me angry.

With the combination of free study resources such as “KB6NU No Non-sense Study Guide” and along with my free exams, there was absolutely no cost barrier to obtain an amateur radio license.

However due to the RAY-BAUM act, the FCC has to implement FEEs. I am bit annoyed that the ARRL didn’t see this coming and more annoyed that they didn’t do anything until AFTER the FCC suggested the rule change. At first it was $50 application fee. After many letters from hams, the FCC lowered it to $35 but they are still implementing fees.

Even though exams through laurel is still “FREE”, the candidate will have to go to the FCC’s website and pay them directly in order to obtain an amateur radio license. This also goes with any renewals and vanity applications. Admin updates such as address/name changes are free as the FCC wants a current address.

The FCC is also making it so you have to provide a valid e-mail address and you can no longer use a Social Security Number (SSN) on the NCVEC form 605. The candidate will need to create an account on the ULS and obtain an FRN prior to any exam. This can be an issue from anyone underage or for those who don’t really use the internet and/or a computer.

I Did Some Contests!

Not counting Field Day, I did some contests from the QTH. During the summer I installed a remote antenna relay and a 160m inverted L antenna but I didn’t get the vertical part as high as I wanted it. I used it to play in one of the 160m contests. I didn’t get much DX but I had lots of fun.

SmartSDR 160m contest
160 meter contest. Lots of signals. Mostly regional/local.

Also played around in the ARRL 10M contest. I was more focused on recording the contest than trying to make contacts. I use N1MM for contest logging and QSOrder is a popular plugin. Thankfully it supports multiple inputs. However, I am having trouble recording my end of CW contacts as flex doesn’t really import the CW Sidetone as there is a delay.

Other Personal Projects.

After field day that was it. I haven’t really done much involving amateur radio. I gave some presentations to local clubs over zoom about my experiences with the flex radio and obtained the material I needed to make some current chokes, rid some local RFI.

Type 31 Toroids
Some of the iron donuts I got for chokes and RFI suppression.

I plan on make a new set of bandpass filters for the field day crew to replace the ones that I am not sure about.

Band Pass Filters
Filters I made for Field Day. These will be remade and better cases will be fabricated

Since the lockdown and restrictions put in place due to the COVID-19 situation. I haven’t been able to host any free radio examinations and haven’t really turned on the radio at my QTH. There is just no interest on my end.

The Future Of NT1K

I haven’t and I don’t think I’ll ever give up with the hobby. It’s been a part of me ever since I got my hands on a Radio Shack catalog. I’m not giving it up that easily. My 2021 goals is to hopefully get my 160M antenna higher and also get antennas up for 80m and 40m. I’m hoping to get 5 band DXCC using LoTW.

As for this blog, I still attract visitors and I still get e-mails from people showing off things they built from prints that I made or projects that I went into detail about. It puts a smile on my face and hope to update a lot of articles.

I let the domain associated with my old callsign lapse thinking it would just go away. Well, I guess it was popular enough to where someone purchased it and then tried offering it back to me at an exaggerated price. Since I had no interest, it now forwards to a very graphic adult site. So if you ended up there by mistake, my apologies.

That’s it for now. Please stay tuned!

RM-11835 Denied By FCC

Today I received word that the FCC has denied my petition to give regional preference to hams applying for a vanity call sign when in competition with others who reside elsewhere. I wasn’t surprised.

For years I’ve been mentioning how I think it’s unfair that call signs are being issued to people outside their districts when you have people within that are applying for the same call on the same day. Personally I feel that those within should have preference when multiple people are applying for a call. I still feel that way.

Instead of complaining, I decided to actually do something about it and submitted my petition to the FCC.

Bit of Confusion

Seems like there was some confusion with my petition and that I was trying to geo restrict callsigns for all. That was FAR from my intentions. The FCC did away with that a long time ago and I support their decision. I still believe that if you apply for vanity callsign and it’s available, you should be able to get it. I also believe that you should retain your call if you move. However, If two or more people applied for the same callsign on the same day, I strongly feel that the person whom lives within the district should have preference over the others.

I have feeling that people thought that my petition was the same as RM-11834. Mr Borghi asked the FCC to restrict ALL vanity applications to their region. My petition was asking for preference when it comes to competing applications which wouldn’t effect most vanity applications. There is quite a difference between the two.

Learning Experience

I have never really submitted any type of letter to the government before as it really shows if you’ve read the actual petition. I try to always use any situation as a learning experience to better myself.

I wanted to get right to point and keep it as short as possible. That may or may not have backfired. Should have gathered more data and submitted it with my petition but I’m not sure if that would have made things better.

I’ve learned what exactly the process is and how long things take within the FCC.

Thank you

I’d like to say thanks to those who took the time to write to the FCC in support of the petition and also to those who weren’t as supportive. Your voices were heard and considered during the review process. It was an interesting experience and hopefully this can be re-visited down the road.

NanoVNA – First Thoughts

At some point in your amateur radio adventures you’ll eventually want to make your own antenna or you’re not certain about the antenna you have and want to make sure it’s working properly. You’ll have to get some type of analyzer. For many years the MFJ-259 series was a staple in the amateur radio community and you’ll still find them in many shacks. But at around $299, it’s a hefty investment for a lot of hams. You’re not going to spend hundreds of dollars to measure your $20 dipole. Just like with boats, you would rather find a friend that has one and use theirs instead. You may be lucky and your local amateur radio club might have a loaner. For a long time, this was the only way… Until now

I’m using a MFJ analyzer to read a J-Pole

With advances in technology, mass production and shipping, hobbyists can get their hands on some really advanced stuff without it doing much wallet damage. The prices for components are now at the level where it’s worth tinkering. For the amateur radio operator, it’s a blessing. Some really nice projects are being developed to where almost anyone can participate. Plus these projects are being shared with the general public which can be a blessing or nightmare depending on the circumstances.

The MiniVNA

Before when the MFJ-259 reigned, there wasn’t much out there unless you started getting to lab grade equipment which is not priced for the hobbyist. Now the market is flooded with all types of analyzers. Some are cheaper and some are more expensive when compared to the 259. They may or may not be better. When I was first in the market, I gravitated towards the mini radio solution’s miniVNA pro. I got a used one for a really great price. It had bluetooth connection and there was an app developed for android based devices where adjustments can be made at the antenna while the analyzer was hooked up at the other end. If you follow my blog, you’ll see many times where I’ve used it.

Using the MiniVNA to look at my Butternut HF9V

I liked that I could analyze antennas, measure coax (see if there is any breaks/shorts), sweep filters and I even measured LC circuits with some degree of accuracy. However, I’ve made a big mistake … I sold it and regretted it almost immediately.

After about the 12th time I kicked myself in the butt, I started looking at getting an analyzer or hobbyist grade VNA. The RigExpert brand of analyzers looked tempting and there were some kit style VNA’s but their prices didn’t justify the purchase .

The SI5351

One of the things I’ve noticed in my very limited electronics skill set is the Silicon Labs Si5351 programmable clock generator chip. Considering they cost around $1USD, I was excited to see what hams would do with the style of chip and there are many kits and products. I could imaging many projects that would need a VFO would use this chip. I’ve purchased breakout kits thinking I would be able to make something from it but my lack of knowledge and time stopped me. However, there are some really cool projects that use the type and style of chip.

New VNA on the block

One of those people was twitter user @eddy555 He was developing a small handheld VNA with a touch screen using the Si5351 Chip. He made it available so that anyone could make it but I just didn’t have time to source the parts and build it. It made having an “affordable” VNA within reach.

Due to the project being completely out in the open, Chinese electronic manufacturers noticed the demand for these kits and started mass producing these VNAs. The market recently flooded with them to where the prices are getting lower and lower. You can now obtain one, assembled with an internal battery for about $50 USD. You can’t really beat that and I feel that they will even get lower in price. Word of mouth is spreading quick in the amateur radio community. So of course I had to get my hands on one.

I purchased mine from the Chinese exporter Aliexpress. People have mixed results when dealing with Aliexpress but from what I’ve read the units coming from a particular vendor were very decent and compared to the likes of lab grade equipment.

After 3 weeks from purchase, I received a box containing the VNA, SMA calibration kit, two SMA patch cables, SMA barrel connector, USB-C Charge/Data cable and a plastic case. The VNA itself is about the size of a credit card and about 1/2″ (11mm) thick. It uses standoff and PCB boards as a case. I removed the screen protector (involves unscrewing the top board) and eventually 3D printed a case I found on thingiverse

My NanoVNA with a 3D printed case and a US quater for size reference. it’s really that small.

First Thoughts

You get a lot for your money. Of course I had to immediately calibrate and test all my HT antennas. Since I’ve had experience with the miniVNA PRO, I felt right at home. It didn’t take me long to figure out where everything is and how to see the measurements I want.

Next was the 3 element tri-band Yagi antenna that is on my roof. I am doing just basic SWR plots. I guess my antenna is still good! Well… At least SWR wise. The screen is indeed tiny so I have a feeling that the older hams might take issue with that. The software that is publicly available has issues as well. But other than that, I really like this unit. For the price you can’t really complain

Software showing my ButterNut HF9V. I guess there is some work that needs to be done to it.

Possible Future

I feel the NanoVNA went viral and I feel that you’ll see many ham shacks with their own in the near future. It’s spreading which I feel is a great thing. The prices will lower and you’ll have many more contributors working on the project. There are people working on some new software that will make reading the VNA results much easier. I’m excited about the future of this device

Update: 9/25/19 – Rune Broberg (5Q5R) has been working on his own software for the NanoVNA that can run on windows and other systems. Check out his github page dedicated to it (also download it from there)

Final Thoughts

If you are looking for an analyzer, for the price of the NanoVNA, I’d strongly suggest you get one. Small enough to fit in a tool bag and it has many uses that can benefit the amateur radio operator.

I’m not dead…

For those who are actually following my blog, thank you! It’s been awhile since my last post and I just want to say that I’m not dead and I’m still active in the amateur radio hobby. Just not on the air as much as I would like. Since it’s been awhile, there will be a lot of reading.

What Happened?

Noise! The ever increasing noise at my QTH has led me away from the airwaves. Or has it? I haven’t been interested in making contacts lately. Not sure if it’s because of the noise, solar cycle, equipment, antennas, lack of enthusiasm or a combination of them all.

Broad-banded Noise At My QTH

I’ve also been doing other things that had taken me away from the blog. For a couple of years I was at the helm of my local radio club and dedicated a lot of time and energy to it. I was very excited when given the opportunity and was hoping to move the club into the future and make it more exciting. However it proved to be difficult and it was getting to a point to where I felt it wasn’t worth the time away from my family. It felt like the board wasn’t really sharing the same interests and that was made apparent when I left when they reverted most of my decisions. Can’t fight the status quo when it comes to ham clubs. However, there were many good times, met lots of nice people and I’ve learned a lot so it wasn’t time wasted.

What Am I Doing Now?

I’ve been dedicating a lot of time and effort into helping those interested in amateur radio to get licensed and help those who want to upgrade by providing free amateur radio examinations. Towards the end of 2017, I created a Laurel VEC team in Western Massachusetts known as the “Pioneer Valley VE Team“. We now have over 25 VEs and administered over 8 exams throughout the pioneer valley. Our goal is to connect new hams with local and national clubs. We are currently the only VE team in Western Mass that is giving out free exams.

Just one of our examinations!

I’ve also worked on various amateur radio related kits and projects. Built one of the MicroBitX QRP transceivers. I’ve also destroyed it trying to install modifications. Might buy another one with an updated board.

My uBitX before it broke.

To combat the noise issues I have, I got my hands on Noise Canceler kit from VK5TM from Australia. It has a decent price (around $60USD) and it didn’t take that long to assemble. The hardest parts I’d say were winding the torroid and soldering these very tiny voltage regulators.

The VK5TM almost completed. Cut the shafts on the pots so the knobs don’t stick out

It works very well. I tested it by tuning into WWV at 5MHZ. Prior to the build, I could never clearly hear the signal. I would just hear little bits and pieces. After putting the canceler in-line, the was a major different

Here is a screen shot of it in action. On the Waterfall, you’ll see when I switched it on or off.

I have since been able to enjoy SSB and actually make contacts. Bit of pain having to adjust it but if there is a station I need to talk to, I can easily turn it on and adjust.

I Have Been On The Air

Just not really much from my QTH. I have been using Dave Robbin’s (K1TTT) contest station here and there. He is an excellent host.

Dave’s 40m/SO2R station during 2019 WPX SSB as NE1C.

He has an impressive station. The downside is after you leave his station, go home and turn on your station, you get bummed out about all the missing signals. I really enjoy contesting and I don’t think I’ll ever get away from it.

I’ve also done some FT8 here and there. It’s a really excellent mode and I think it’s a godsend for those operators who can’t have a large station. I see a lot of operators dismiss the mode claiming it’s a cheap way to get DXCC but I see it as a mode that re-generates interest in Amateur Radio.

FCC Petition

As of writing this, The FCC is still seeking public comments about my rule making petition to give residential preference to hams applying for a vanity callsign when the applications are in competition (multiple people applying for the same call). There is still a few days left before they close comments.

You can read about it in detail here

The Future

There are some changes coming to the NT1K shack and I hope that I will be back on the air participating in chasing DX and contesting . I’ve abandoned my dreams of SO2R (For Now). I’m concentrating my efforts on being able to enjoy operating from home again. I’ve sold off basically all my gear which includes my amp (that I miss very much), roller tuner, KX3 and I am currently selling my K3. I am going to have a fresh start. I’m going after a cleaner station with more antenna options.

Since spring is here and summer is around the corner, I doubt I’ll be able to dedicate time to my station. I set my goal to have my station fully operational again on all bands for the CQWW SSB contest.

I guess you’ll have to stay tuned. Thanks for reading!

Please Support RM-11835

I’ve petition the FCC for a rule making change that would give residential preference to amateur radio operators applying for vanity callsigns that reside within the district of the callsign only when applications are in competition with others.

I don’t think it’s fair to see callsign applications that are in competition to be awarded to operators who reside outside the district of the callsign when there are operators who are also applying for that live within. They should have preference. If there are no competing applications for a callsign then it’s up for grabs by anyone. I am on requesting residential preference on ONLY competing applications, nothing else.

This mostly applies to callsigns in the 1X2 or 2X1 format (N1AB or NA1B for example) as they are very difficult to obtain. There is usually at least a half dozen applications for a short call the day it becomes available. When the FCC dropped the fees associated with vanity applications, the difficulty increased.


When I’ve obtained my extra class license, I wanted to get a shorter callsign to replace N1BMX. I often do contesting and felt it would be nice to have something shorter in CW. This meant I would be going after a callsign either in the 1X2 or 2X1 format (N1AB or NA1B for example). I’ve noticed there are not many of these short callsigns available anymore. When one becomes available, many people apply for it on the same day. If you are not aware, when multiple people apply for the call, it goes into a lottery situation where the FCC randomly picks one of the applications and grants the call. Even if you applied at 12:01am, it doesn’t matter.

I applied for K1HF when it came available and lost out to someone in Maine. I didn’t win the lottery which is fine. Then N1DE came up and I lost out to someone in California. I wasn’t fine with that . Then I noticed many of my peers loosing out on competing applications to operators who reside outside the district of the call they were applying for. I didn’t think this was fair.

I understand that the FCC has dropped residency requirements and I still support that. Your callsign is part of your identity. It’s who you are when you are on the air and sometimes you are only known by your call. I still believe that you move, you should be able to retain your callsign. Even though the FCC has dropped that requirement, they still issue call signs by district. When operators travel, they attach an identifier telling which district they are in (NT1K/6 for example).

If I hear US station with a 6 in their callsign, I am going to believe they are in California. Same with hearing a KH6 or a KL thinking they are in Hawaii or Alaska (BTW, those calls are restricted to those who reside in Hawaii, Alaska and other islands).

Please Support

Instead of complaining, I decided to do something about it. Back in September of 2018 I submitted a rulemaking petition that for the most part, sat in their inbox. I didn’t think anything was going to come of it until I saw an ARRL article where it was mentioned. The FCC accepted it and assigned a rulemaking docket number 11835 (RM-11835).

I ask that if you support, please submit a comment to the FCC. Even if you don’t support it, submit a comment to the FCC anyways. You can add an express comment by visiting the following website

In the Proceedings box type RM-11835, fill out the rest of the form and add your comment.

There is also a similar petition (RM-11834) asking for residency preference on ALL vanity applications. The difference between mine is that I am only asking preference on competing applications. I was not aware of this petition and didn’t see it in the FCC’s ECFS system.

Thank you,
Jeffrey Bail (NT1K)

ARRL DX SSB 2018 – Extended Soapbox

With the not so great weather we had around my QTH, I figured to turn on the radio and participate in the ARRL DX side band contest this weekend. It’s been almost 2 years since I’ve did any sort of SSB contesting from my own station. It’s a combination of the solar cycle, RFI from solar panels in my area and being spoiled by operation at contest station K1TTT.

This happened just a couple houses away. The trees on my street have seen better days. They are not mostly hollow and were constantly shedding limbs. Thankfully the town cut the tree that was directly in-front of my house. They left the stump but after this weekend, I’m grateful. However, I was worried about my roof mounted beam (CL-33) surviving the weekend.

Getting Back On The Air

I was surprised to turn on the radio and hear signals… Everywhere. It sort of felt like 2011 again. My ears piqued and I was scrambling to set up my logging software and headset. I recorded my macros and away I went.

Since I wasn’t really planning on putting in a serious effort (Which I have yet to do from my home), I turned on the cluster and did mostly S&P (Search and Pounce). I was sticking with 20 meters with the hopes of entering as single band until I looked at the rules. Since I was using the cluster/telnet, It puts me into the “Unlimited” category that doesn’t have single bands. I ended up entering as “Single Operator All Band, Unlimited, Low Power” (SOAB(U)-LP). I went with low power because I no longer have high power gear at the QTH.

My Goal Was 100 QSOs

One should always set a goal. I decided to be easy and make just 100 QSOs. I figured with the way 20 meters was sounding, I should be able to get that in a couple hours. Nope! I had to fight a bit because I was running low power. I started noticing a lot of spots on 15m so I went over a played.

It took a few hours but I met my goal. Turned off the radio and did stuff around the house. I though I was done but Sunday morning came along and knew there was more people out there.

Don’t be an appliance operator

I was starting to get frustrated during the contest. I recall being easily able to work Italy and Germany. I was struggling. The mix of QRM from everyone trying to squeeze into a tight band, local RFI and poor conditions wasn’t doing well with me. That was until a colleague made a side comment about features of my K3 that I wasn’t using.

I narrowed the filter to use my 1.8Khz filter, shifted the filter, turned the AGC from fast to slow, enabled the noise blanker and turned on the noise reduction at times. My biggest aid was the RF Gain knob.  All of those combined made operating in my environment much easier. I paid good money for this equipment and I am certain you did as well. Take advantage of what you have. In my case, I forgot about it.

Overall thoughts

I ended up making 155 contacts. I was hoping to make 50k points but life took me away from the radio.

There are some “ATNO”  (All Time New One) contacts in the log. Z60K (Kosovo) sticks out. I thought PZ5K (Suriname) would be another but I worked PZ5RA back in 2015. Hopefully I get some new band slots.

I had fun. It proved that I could do contesting from home. I have to work harder but it’s still possible.

Thanks for reading!

Yes I am still here. Updates and other stuff!

It’s been over a year since my last post.  Amateur radio activity at station NT1K has slowed down quite a bit. There has been RFI issues at my QTH and heading into a solar null doesn’t help. Sold/Selling off my high power equipment and gave up on trying to convert my station to SO2R.

I’ve recently moved to a new host.  My old host increased their price by at least 40%. They were hesitant about changing my account and since I use very little space/bandwidth, it wasn’t worth the increase. I decided to get full use out of the VPS that I purchased for a different project. It was a huge learning experience but I’m saving hundreds a year by doing it myself. During the move I restructured the site to drop the /blog. I didn’t realize that it would cause issues with search engine results. I have since fixed that… Hopefully.

I am not out of the hobby. Portable operations is picking up, I am working on some projects, I have started a local VE team. There are some articles coming down the pipe so please stay tuned.

Thanks for reading,